A common inflammatory skin disease accompanied by acne or blackheads is called acne (acne vulgaris). In the writings of Aristotle and Hippocrates there are descriptions of pathology that do not cause doubt that these great healers of antiquity described acne. Dogs, like humans, have acne. Shorthair breeds are especially susceptible to this disease - boxers, Dobermans, sharpei, pugs and bulldogs.
Reasons for the development of pathology
Despite the long history of the study of the disease, the causes of acne are still not fully understood. Acne is the most common recurrent, inflammatory disease of the sebaceous follicular apparatus. Due to the hyperfunction of the sebaceous glands, their stomata become clogged, inflammation and, when a secondary infection is attached, suppuration. In dogs, acne is localized on the face, less often in the area of the root of the tail, anal sphincter, trunk. The causes of acne are:
- hormonal imbalance;
- polygenic inheritance;
- ultraviolet radiation;
The hormonal theory of the occurrence of acne is confirmed by the fact of the incidence of the disease. Acne is more commonly seen in puppies and young dogs. During the growth period, the level of active testosterone increases, which stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes (epidermal cells) and the production of special secretions.
If their outflow is disturbed, the glands of the skin become blocked and a plug forms, which consists of desquamated skin cells, sebum, and microorganisms. As a result, an inflammatory process develops. A swelling occurs in the place of blockage, a dense red tubercle, which gradually transforms into an abscess.
The appearance of acne is also affected by the level of linoleic acid. At a very low level of acid, the process of desquamation of the skin epithelium is activated and the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines is activated. Congenital hypersensitivity of the sebaceous receptors to androgens contributes to the appearance of acne.
In the ducts of the sebaceous glands and on the surface of the skin is the bacterium Propionibacterium acne, which, with a decrease in immunity, begins to multiply rapidly, causing inflammation of the sebaceous glands. The bacterium synthesizes lipase, hyaluronidase, proteases and stimulates the activity of cytokines. Staphylococci also participate in the inflammatory process. In addition, in the sebaceous glands, a neuroendocrine function is activated in response to stress, which contributes to the appearance of acne. It was found that acne also occurs against the background of inflammatory processes caused by injuries.
Classification and symptoms of the disease
There are many varieties of acne classifications that make it easier for a doctor to diagnose and prescribe treatment. So, for example, the following forms of acne are distinguished:
- non-inflammatory (comedonal acne) - these include micro comedones, open comedones or blackheads, closed or whiteheads with slight inflammation. These forms are associated with blockage of the sebaceous glands and occur in dogs only on smooth skin in the lips, anus;
- inflammatory acne, which is characterized by the appearance of pustules, papules, nodes and a pronounced inflammatory process. They occur when another type of sebaceous glands is located, located at the base of the cannon and bristly hair, therefore they can be localized on the muzzle, lower jaw, at the base of the tail and on the body of the dog;
- severe forms of acne are manifested in the form of confluent, congested, spherical formations, nodular-cystic and phlegmous acne. After scarring, scars, thickened skin, and areas of hyperpigmentation remain.
In addition to inflammation and suppuration, the appearance of acne in dogs can be accompanied by itching and pain. The external manifestations and symptoms of acne are similar to a number of skin pathologies - demodicosis, contact allergy, inflammation around a foreign object, bacterial infection. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct differential diagnostics in order to exclude similar pathologies. To do this, a skin scraping is taken from the dog and microscopy of the sample and bacteriosis are carried out.
Dog Acne Therapy
At home, it is quite possible to cope with the treatment yourself. Often enough bathing your pet with a special antiseborrhoeic shampoo, such as "Doctor", which includes benzoyl peroxide - an antimycotic and antibacterial agent. Chlorhexidine shampoos are also very popular - Healing, Bee, Doktor VIC, Davis, Dr Seidel. They not only eliminate itching and relieve inflammation, but also contribute to the faster healing of wounds on the skin.
For external exposure, ointments with mupirocin are used - Bactroban, Supirocin, Fucidin, Fusiderm. Introducing L-threonine or using the Hills Canine ld Hepatic Health ready-made diet food for dogs will help reduce the severity of follicular keratosis. For the same purpose, you can use Retin-A cream, which is indicated for the treatment of acne, follicular keratosis, flat warts. If the inflammation cannot be removed, then corticosteroids are prescribed.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed for deep skin lesions. Most often, drugs from the group of cephalosporins are used for systemic therapy. With timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable.