Perhaps the most recognizable city dog is a smooth-haired Dachshund. Small dimensions and unpretentiousness in care make the breed practically ideal for apartment maintenance. Dachshunds get along with children, quickly learn and adapt to the pace of life of the owner. An ideal dog for home and hunting, of course, with appropriate care and training.
The standard smooth-haired dachshund is oldest breedhaving perfect inclinations for burrow hunting. As shown by many years of experience, tetrapods successfully learn to drive the beast and various sports as an alternative to hunting.
The history of the breed stretches over 5 thousand years. Squat dogs of the taxis type were used for hunting and housing protection from rodents. From the early canids came two varieties of hunting dogs: larger marriages and compact dachshunds. There is also an intermediate type - tax-like marriage.
Despite the fact that the remains of taxis-like dogs were found in different countries, their Germany recognized as homeland. For the Germans, burrowing always had a special meaning, it provided survival, protection of food supplies and small farm animals. With the development of progress, hunting has become a tradition and indicator of status.
The first description of the breed was made in Germany. For the hard work, to systematize the requirements for dogs, took the breed club, created in 1988. After the adoption of the international standard, the popularity of Dachshunds has increased dramatically, and this was not due to fashion. Active export of dogs has made Dachshund recognizable all over the world. In Germany, the breed is in second place in popularity, while the German Shepherd is the undisputed leader.
After settling around the world, dogs began to be transformed to the requirements of a particular territory. By selecting small dogs for breeding, a smooth-haired miniature dachshund (dwarf) was obtained. Four-legged with a narrowed chest did not get stuck in holes and could hunt in complex holes. Later, a smooth-haired rabbit dachshund appeared, which is often perceived as a decorative house breed.
Probably every dog lover knows how the Dachshund looks, but not everyone knows that there are certain requirements for the physique of this breed. Regardless of size, the four-legged should be toned, muscular, without folds of skin or excess weight.
Note! Smooth-haired dwarf dachshund is the average variety, and the smallest is rabbit.
Dachshunds do not apply the standard gradation in size (height, weight), when assessing the expert relies on:
- Chest girth: more than 36 cm in standard; 30-35 cm is the norm for dwarf; up to 30 cm for a rabbit. Measurements are relevant for dogs older than 15 months.
- Weight: about 9 kg, 3-4 kg, 2.5-3 kg, respectively. A dog weighing more than 9 kg can be recognized as a pedigree, but cannot be rated "excellent".
- Head - wedge-shaped, elongated, but not pointed. The forehead is moderately wide, the transition to the muzzle is mild. The jaws are deep and strong, completely hidden by tight-fitting lips. The nose is black (brown), oval.
- Teeth - in a scissor bite, even, of proportional size, in a complete set.
- Eyes - not too large, oval with close-fitting eyelids.
- The ears - large, with rounded tips, lowered on the sides of the head.
- Body - strong and muscular. The sternum is not too wide, the distance from the bottom of the chest to the ground is 1/3 of the height at the withers. The back is strong, not sagging, not arched.
- Limbs - set under the body, strong and well muscled. Hind legs set slightly wider than the front. The withers and scruff are well defined. The line of the back is straight or falling from the withers.
- Tail - set not too high, even or sickle-shaped.
Type of coat and color
Skin tight fitting, without folds, the exception is the fold formed along the abdomen when walking. The stiff stiff, dense, perfectly flat. On the muzzle and ears, the hair is a little shorter, on the tail is longer. Despite the fact that the dogs are smooth-haired, they have an undercoat, which is especially pronounced in the autumn-winter period.
The color of the Dachshund is divided into three types: one-color, two-color and spotty. In the first case, the dogs are always red (from dark red to fawn) with or without black hairs. Boar coloring is allowed. Two-tone color means the main color (black or brown) and red tan. Marble (including blue merle) and brindle are classified as spotty colors.
Character and training
Dachshunds are very energetic, and at a young age also unexpectedly playful. Growing up, the dog loses interest in games, but gets a new "highlight" - excitement. Even if the dog has never been trained for hunting, it instinctively pays attention to smells and, if desired, follows them. Carried away by the search for prey, the pet may not hear your commands, or even flee from you on purpose. When walking in unfamiliar areas, even in the company of other dogs, the four-legged should be fastened on a leash. The same recommendation applies to sex drive if your pet is not neutered / sterilized.
Important! Do not let Dachshund off the leash if you are not sure of its control!
Representatives of the breed are attached to the owner and tolerant of the rest of the family. Children have a special situation and pranks are forgiven. Will Dachshund be friends with other animals - an individual indicator. According to the experience of the owners, they get along well with cats if the owner follows the rules of gradual training. For strangers, dogs are more distrustful than friendly. The dachshund cannot be used to guard the house, but if necessary, it will protect the family (especially when it comes to the child).
Representatives of the breed are very smart. Training must begin at a very young age. It is worth approaching training comprehensively and familiarizing the pet with a wide range of teams in a short time. Dachshunds are not inclined to service, they like partnership and respect. A very large role in learning is played by interpersonal contact and the attention of the owner.
Note! Dachshunds love to be spoken to, they listen attentively and seemingly understand perfectly what they are talking about.
Dachshund is a purely hunting dog that needs work or an alternative to it.. If you have a pet as a companion and pet, be prepared for long walks, active games or sports. Jumping loads must be closely monitored, especially for older dogs.
Maintenance and care
Puppies of a smooth-haired dachshund are prone to hypothermia, so take care of a warm lodge or pet bed in advance. In order to protect the pet from injuries, the feeding place needs to be covered with a non-slip rug. It is worth noting that Regardless of the type of coat, the Dachshund must live in a dwelling.
When living in a private house, there is a risk of rat poison poisoning. Dachshunds tend to catch rodents and this is the main danger. The fact is that the already poisoned rat is less agile and catching it is not difficult. The poison is in the blood of a rodent, and if a dog has bitten through the skin of a rat, it runs the risk of poisoning ... if the four-legged one ate prey (Dachshunds are not inclined to this), poisoning is guaranteed!
In addition to all the charms of fights with rats, the latter are carriers of rabies and other dangerous infections. The saliva of rodents (and the marten too) has a special composition and if the dog was bitten, a purulent wound forms at the puncture site. The conclusion is quite simple - watch your pet and put a bell on the harness (which the victim hears).
Important! The classic collar is not suitable for Dachshunds, because the circumference of their neck is proportional to the head. The dog will simply remove the collar if desired. When choosing a harness for a puppy, it should be borne in mind that it should be sewn like a vest. Standard harness will lead to deformation of the sternum in the puppy.
Daily care for a smooth-haired dachshund will not be a problem even for the busiest owners, of course, this statement does not apply to walking. Shedding lasts up to 2 weeks, occurs in spring and autumn. Winter and summer wool differs in structure, in spring, the dog needs to be combed out more intensively. Despite the short and smooth coat, molting is noticeable and quite intense. Bathing is carried out as necessary, optimally, no more than 3-4 times a year.
The eyes and ears of the dog must be examined for inflammation. Even if the dog is treated for ticks, the condition of the ears must be carefully monitored. Ear cleaning is carried out once every 3-4 weeks using antibacterial agents. Eye examination at the veterinarian is carried out at least 1 time per year.
Important! If there is blurred eyes, a visit to the doctor should not be postponed.
Claws are cut once every 2-3 weeks, but with active walking, the procedure may not be needed. Paw pads are inspected for injuries and cracks. When plaque appears on the teeth, cleaning is necessary. Note that in dogs with the correct bite, dental problems are rare.
Dachshund ration should be adjusted depending on the time of year and loads. Many members of the breed are prone to "gluttony" and gaining excess weight. The diet is selected individually, but the Dachshund can be kept both on a natural diet and on industrial feed.
Note! Standard Dachshunds are practically not prone to food allergies, which can not be said about rabbit and dwarf representatives of the breed.
Dogs participating in the hunt need careful monitoring against the appearance of parasites. In urban areas, relatively fewer ticks, but more fleas. Helminths, the intermediate owners of which are wild animals, are more dangerous than the parasites typical of dogs and cats. Pay special attention to the prevention of parasites, try to select drugs with a wide (rather than standard) spectrum of action. At the slightest doubt - contact your veterinarian!
With an average life expectancy of 12-15 years, Dachshund has a tendency to a number of diseases. You need to understand that the breed has a respectable age, which increases the risk of detecting expected and purely genetic ailments:
- Swimmer syndrome in puppies, leads to the fact that babies can not stand on their paws and move crawling. Pathology develops rapidly and in most cases (with timely assistance), successfully stopped.
- Infringement of the spinal nerves due to displacement of the vertebral discs leads to paralysis of the hind limbs. Most often, the disease manifests itself in old age.
- For older dogs is also characteristic dysplasia.
- Education rough skin folds with darkened pigmentation or lumpy-pigmentary dystrophy of the skin.
Dachshunds can suffer from cataracts and glaucoma. Dogs kept on low-quality industrial feeds are almost guaranteed to develop urolithiasis or kidney failure. At a young age, Dachshund can be diagnosed with diabetes. The condition does not stop completely and the pet remains dependent on insulin injections for life.
Important! Dachshunds, like any other pet, need vaccination against viruses! Working dogs are recommended to be vaccinated against pyroplasmosis.
Obesity is a common ailment for all types of Dachshunds. Development is due to an unbalanced diet, lack of exercise or hormonal imbalance. With frequent bathing and food allergies, the dog suffers from skin diseases (eczema, seborrhea).
Smooth-haired Dachshunds are prone to hypothermia and colds in frosty and rainy weather. Problems can be prevented with warm and protective clothing. Dogs with a black color run the risk of overheating in hot weather, and this can be prevented by wearing a white T-shirt on the pet and moving the dog to a less hot watch.