Today, the breed is called Russian Toy, but for many, the outdated name is more familiar - the Russian Toy Terrier. Having won considerable popularity for companionable qualities and miniature size, toychik became another reason for pride for Russian breeders. Not the least role was played by the fashion for small dogs, which can be carried in a bag. Russian toy became quite a serious competitor for York, because unlike its "rival" it has short hair and does not need regular haircuts.
Dog breed Russian Toy Terrier began to symbolize status and serve as decoration in homes since the beginning of the XIX century. Moreover, dogs arose from nowhere and immediately in large numbers. Such a development of events can be explained by only one fact - the breeding of a new breed based on the gene pool of dogs imported into the country from abroad. There is practically no doubt that the closest ancestor of the Russian Toy is the dwarf Manchester Terrier or the English Toy Terrier. At home, these dogs became famous as rat-catchers and companions.
The official history of the breed began after the revolutions and wars, in the 50s of the 20th century. Cataclysms and political battles plagued the breed, dozens of thoroughbred dogs remained on the territory of the country, and there were only a few animals with documents. Upcoming difficulties did not frighten Moscow breeders, and they decided to reconstruct the breed. As usual, in practice everything turned out to be even more complicated than in theory, four-legged selected for breeding did not fully correspond to the description of the breed, sometimes animals had health problems.
It took the breeders 10 years to almost completely recreate the terrier that was once familiar. There was a nuance - the isolation of livestock specialists and dog handlers of the USSR from colleagues from other countries. The breed continued to be called the English Toy Terrier, despite significant changes in the exterior. Soviet cynologists were not given prospects, and they had to adjust the breed standards to the unattainable external world intuitively.
It is easy to guess that the dogs of the same breed in Russia and in the West were quite different. Conservation of this situation dragged on for 30 years, things have changed dramatically after the fall of the Iron Curtain. Livestock specialists, breeders, dog handlers and simply dog lovers were able to see the results of 30 years of work by foreign colleagues. It was then that it became clear that the large number of miniature dogs already bred in Russia cannot bear the name of the English Toy Terrier. Against the background of the fact that nurseries and their breed standard already existed in the country, Russian breeders realized that they had almost not intentionally created a new breed that could and should be recognized.
It is interesting! With the fall of the Iron Curtain, the import of foreign dogs, including English toy and other decorative breeds, began to be imported into Russia. Naturally, competition ousted a part of Russian Toy Terriers from the rings and the market. However, this event cannot be considered as negative for the breed as a whole. After the hype, enthusiastic fans quit their factory activities, and true fans continued to groom and cherish their toy.
The consolidation of positive qualities and the improvement of the exterior continued, only the breed was already called the Russian Toy Terrier. Breed standard, until 1965 allowed only shorthair sobato, the appearance of long-haired toy is a merit of one person who decided to go against the system. Imperious, a fashion-keeping breeder, Zharova E.F. achieved recognition of her long-haired favorites almost alone. It all started with the fact that in the litter of pedigree toi born with a black and tan puppy with marriage - hairs on ears and paws (1958). The kid was so charming that Eugene decided not only to keep it for herself, but also to consolidate these qualities by selection. The breeder attracted friends-breeders to the work and by 1965 a group of breeders was successful - the Russian long-haired Toy Terrier was officially recognized (in Russia).
After an international exhibition in 2005, at which many Toy Terriers were represented, the breed was recognized by FCI. The decision was made with all severity and bias, but FCI experts from different countries voted unanimously. After the experienced tests, the breed actively stands on its four paws and successfully develops. Experts diligently eliminate health risks and try to tighten selection of breeding producers as much as possible. Controlled breeding aimed at improving the breed is carried out in almost all major cities of Russia and abroad - Germany, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia, Ukraine, Sweden, Estonia, the Czech Republic and other European countries.
Small size, good health, stable psyche, unpretentiousness (compared with other miniature breeds) and a loyal disposition are optimal qualities for an apartment companion. Physically, Toy terriers are weak and thin-boned, but mobile, courageous and harmonious addition. Females are slightly larger than males (this is a common practice for small dogs), and the limitations prescribed by the standard are common to both sexes:
- Growth 20-28 cm.
- Weight up to 3 kg.
- Head - rounded, not too wide, harmonious size, not long. The forehead is convex, can be divided by a shallow groove, the orbits are moderate, the cheeks are fairly full, the cheekbones are flat, the transition to the muzzle is sharp. The front part is slightly shorter than the frontal, with tightly pressed lips and a flat nose. Pigmentation of the extreme line of the lips is black or corresponds to the palette of coat color.
- Teeth - in the right bite, small, set vertically and as evenly as possible.
- Nose - small, pigmentation is color or black.
- Eyes - practically perfectly round and slightly convex, with a healthy sheen. The eyelids are tight-fitting, hiding the conjunctiva, pigmented to the tone of the nose. Iris saturated, dark, brown.
- The ears - proportional size, upright, triangular, cartilage thin and elastic.
- Body - visually fits into a square, chest depth is 1/2 height at the withers. Neck with a flat, “dry” musculature, rather long with a pronounced bend. The chest in the section is oval, deep, ribs are springy, not too elongated. Withers weak or not pronounced, the line of the back I drops to the croup, the lower back is slightly higher than the line of the back and rounded, the croup is moderately sloping and also rounded. The line of the abdomen and groin selected, "undermining" expressed.
- Limbs - forepaws are almost sheer to the ground, even with developed, but not visually expressed muscles. The shoulder blades are weakly expressed, rather short, almost equal in length to the shoulders, elbows laid back forearms of natural length, wrists and metacarpals sheer. Hind legs set wider than extreme lines of the croup laid back but not elongated. The hips are developed, fairly wide, the hocks are pronounced, the metatarsals are set upright to the support. Oval brushes, fingers folded, assembled, claws and pads pigmented to match the nose and / or color.
- Tail - in its natural form reaches the hocks, holding a sickleabove the line of the spine. When stopping, the tail length is 2-3 vertebrae, carried high.
Type of coat and color
The colors of the breed are multifaceted, but limited by the standard. Typical colors are: red (with tan or black); black, blue or brown with tan. In any color, the advantage is given to saturated colors.
As it was written above, FCI recognizes two varieties of the breed - the Russian smooth-haired Toy Terrier and the little brother - long-haired toy, bred into a separate category. According to breed standard:
- Shorthair dogs do not have undercoat, awn is uniform and thick, shiny.
- Longhair - spine 3-5 cm, adjacent to the body, does not distort the silhouettehas a natural shine. Hair straight or slightly wavy. Scabs on the back of the paws, hands, ears. Puppies of the Russian Toy Terrier may have poor fringe on their ears, but by the age of 3, the coat should completely hide the extreme lines and corners.
Character and training
Toy, but a real dog - this is how the Toy Terrier unsubscribes with the characteristics of the breed. In fact, too often, miniature four-legged animals sit in a bag, tremble and hysterically fear the outside world. The stability of the psyche depends on heredity, but upbringing is not the last place. Initially, the character of the Russian Toy Terriers was similar to the English Toy - brave, brisk, ready for testing.
Note! In a broad sense, a terrier is a normal dog, in the case of an English toy, a rat-cat. Against the background of the declared characteristics, the four-legged, shaking from rustling, looks at least strange.
A loyal, playful, obedient, loving company owner’s dog - this is a real, mentally healthy Russian Toy Terrier. The characteristics of the breed should not be perceived as one-sided and try on every four-legged, as some miniature dogs tend to overestimate their capabilities.
Note! Adaptation of the ward to life in society is socialization and it lies at the basis of education.
Do I need to train a Russian Toy Terrier? Definitely needed, but the set of teams should be selected in accordance with the breed. Calling, walking nearby, "Sitting", "Lying", "Standing", returning to the place and the team "Fu" - a mandatory set of skills for any dog. Fortunately, the dogs are very smart and you don’t have to spend a lot of time on their training. There is also a nuance - the training of miniature breeds is based only on the encouraging method, since it is dangerous to physically affect a dog weighing up to 3 kg.
A huge plus is that you can accustom the Russian Toy Terrier to the toilet. In severe frosts, the ward may be cold, overheat in the heat. By the way, not a single source about the maintenance of dogs contains information that it is useful for the pet to endure and wait for walking. By accustoming a caudate to a tray or diaper, you will reduce the risks associated with diseases of the kidneys and the genitourinary system as a whole.
Toy terriers get along well in a family with any composition, they are patient with children and other animals. The dog must have its own place where she can relax. In relation to cats, fear is just for the dog. An adult cat is stronger and more agile than a toychik, and if a tailed cat thinks of infringing on a striped one, then may be seriously injured (including the eye).
Maintenance and care
Features of the content of miniature breeds are associated with an increased risk of harm to the pet through ignorance or negligence. Caring for a Russian Toy Terrier includes refurbishment of the home, for the safety and needs of the caudate. The minimum measures that the owner should consider before buying a puppy:
- In the House there should not be surfaces above 0.4-0.5 metersthat the dog can climb on their own.
- Any gaps and cavities behind furniture or appliances should be closed.
- Everything electrical wires must be removed under special covers. If a large dog is simply shocked when it bites a wire, then the toychik can be killed.
- Flooring must be non-slip materials, as the dog can slip and dislocate the limbs under its own weight.
- Feeding place is necessary to cover with a non-slip rug.
- Dog place should be away from radiators, drafts, passable places.
- If the house has children, with all severity and responsibility, explain to them that awkwardness and carelessness can lead to serious injuries to the pet.
Further, for the maintenance of the Toy Terrier you will need clothes - autumn, spring and winter. In regions with particularly cold winters, shoes will also be needed. For rainy weather, a waterproof jumpsuit is required. Since the accessory fabric does not allow water to pass through, it also blocks air circulation; take off your clothes immediately after a walk. It is also recommended to wipe the pet's fur coat with wet wipes - this will eliminate the electrification from rubbing the wool on the suit.
In addition to the harness and leash, you will need a convenient carrying bag. Tojiki are active and love to walk, no less than this they love to defiantly sit on their hands. It only in theory seems that 3 kg is not hard to carry on your hand, but after a 1-2 hour journey, the owner becomes completely unhappy. Carry bag will allow to distribute the load of "excess weight" in the body and on the spine, in this case, carrying a dog with itself is really not difficult.
The dog should not be bathed often and scratched intensively (unless it is in the process of molting). Once a week, the hair is disassembled with a comb with frequent teeth. The teeth, ears and eyes of the pet should be constantly monitored. If your ward does not participate in exhibitions, hair on the ears, hands and groin is recommended to be shortened.
Dental care is a separate issue affecting the nutrition of the Russian Toy Terrier. Miniature dogs under no circumstances no bones. During the change of teeth, you will need special toys. Carefully follow the incisors and fangs, because often the milk tooth is still not loose, and the molar is already growing. As a result, the molar erupts crookedly, and milk begins to rot.
Four-legged small build it’s hard to chew coarse food, so the food for the Russian Toy Terrier is canned food or “soaked” drying granules. Industrial feeds are intensely fortified, which is not entirely safe for a small toy. The product must be of high quality (not lower than premium) and designed for miniature dogs. Carefully calculate your daily food intake and read the product instructions. Since the breed is not prone to food allergies, it is easier to feed the Russian Toy Terrier with natural food or pre-prepared home canned food.
The average life expectancy of the Russian Toy Terrier ranges from 11 to 16 years, depending on heredity, the quality of cultivation and care. The breed is characterized as healthy, because in theory, it has only three diseases:
- Cataract - A common disease of dogs in old age. It is expressed by a clouding of the lens of the eye. Further development of the clinical picture depends on the general condition of the four-legged. In the worst case, the pet may lose vision or suffer from glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure).
- Retinal atrophy - develops in dogs older than 5 years. Retinal cells begin to die due to poor circulation or metabolic decline. Theoretical forecasts of the development of the disease are not given, but many dogs live with retinal atrophy without showing any signs. The first symptom is blurred vision at dusk and darkness.
- Congenital medial dislocation of the patella - the four-legged walks on half-crouched or bent legs. The disease is detected in puppyhood. The relevance of treatment depends on the clinical picture (sometimes, it is impossible to stop the ailment). Even after carrying out all the measures and restoring the patella, the dog has a lifelong tendency to re-injure itself.
We are talking about miniature dogs, which are more prone to injury than their larger counterparts. It is necessary to protect the ward by all means and methods from puppyhood.Jumping from a height of more than 0.5 meters or falling can cause serious injury. With a deliberate jump from a height, typical injuries are dislocations, sprains of the joints of the forepaws, fractures of the forearms, shoulders and metacarpals. Further, a number of diseases are presented, to which all miniature dogs are prone:
- Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease) - a hereditary ailment, which is not customary to be attributed to toy, but in practice it is diagnosed quite often. The cells of the femoral head die off regardless of the method of maintenance and feeding. Usually, the ailment is stopped surgically, but the sooner the four-legged gets to the veterinarian, the more likely it is to reduce the damage medically.
- Atlanto-Axial Instability - most often diagnosed at a young age, due to the displacement of the first cervical vertebra relative to the second (Atlanta to the axis). If the situation is not running, the four-legged is prescribed to wear a rigid corset that maintains the correct physiological position of the spine.
- Hydrocephalus - a congenital disorder in the formation of the brain and skull. Simply put, dropsy, pressing on the brain. It appearstypical behavior, loss of balance, deterioration or loss of vision, disorientation, change in the shape of the skull.
- Portosystemic anastomosis - a condition where blood not cleared by the liver returns to the bloodstream and enters the heart. The ailment is caused by the abnormal structure of the liver, more precisely, an abnormality in its vessels. Health is maintained by conservative methods, but in complex cases they resort to surgical intervention.
- Cholecystitis in combination with gastritis or as an independent disease - inflammation of the gallbladder.
- Pancreatitis - inflammation of the pancreas.
- Sensitivity to anesthesia and individual intolerance to many medications (antibiotics, analgesics).