Hemolysis in cats: features of the disease and treatment methods

Typically, cats are animals that are distinguished by activity and "acrobatic" abilities. And therefore, in cases when your pet suddenly became sluggish, began to pay little attention to games and running around the house, loving owners are always inclined to be alarmed. Hemolysis leads to such consequences. In a cat, this pathology is fraught with many unpleasant consequences and even death.

What it is?

This is the name of the process of decay and destruction of red blood cells, that is, red blood cellsAs a result, a huge amount of hemoglobin enters the general bloodstream. This is bad, since bilirubin is formed as a result of its processing, which leads to the development of jaundice. The latter is an extremely dangerous pathological condition, accompanied by powerful intoxication of the whole organism, and the latter especially affects the nervous system of the pet. Because of this, jaundice is often accompanied by the development of seizures resembling epileptic.

By the way, hemolysis is far from always a pathology. The fact is that in the spleen erythrocytes (old, exhausted ones) are destroyed daily, and there is nothing wrong with that. The body simply replaces the "oldies" with new blood cells. This type of hemolysis is called intracellular. Pathology is an intravascular variant of this process. Normally, nothing like this should be, and red blood cells are destroyed directly in the vascular bed only in case of serious pathological conditions of the whole organism.

What is hemolysis fraught with? There are many consequences, and all are extremely bad. To begin with, when a decrease in the number of red blood cells in the general bloodstream, the body begins to experience pronounced oxygen starvation. The longer this pathological condition lasts, the worse the consequences will be. If you do not provide assistance to the animal, it can simply die from suffocation with perfectly healthy organs of the respiratory system.

The second consequence. Since hemolysis occurs massive release of hemoglobin into the blood, this leads to the accumulation of bilirubin. This is extremely dangerous since jaundice quickly develops in the animal. And she, as you know, is extremely hard on the state of the nervous system. When an animal does not receive qualified veterinary care in such cases, they die of intoxication against the background of terrible neurological seizures. In short, hemolysis is an extremely dangerous pathology. At the first sign of a pet, it is necessary to urgently deliver it to an experienced veterinarian in order to identify the causes of what is happening and quickly begin treatment.

What causes hemolysis?

Predisposing factors are extremely diverse. But cats, which by their nature are predators, are considered one of the main reasons hemolytic poisoning. The fact is that it is precisely such substances that are often used today to conduct deratization. Weakened mice and rats become the natural prey of cats ... which are etched when they are eaten. It is especially bad if, after a hearty meal, the cat drinks plenty of water - this helps to strengthen the hemolysis process, and can also lead to a quick fatal outcome.

Very often, the pathology develops after tick bite. The point here is blood parasitic diseases. In case of blood parasitic infections, such as hemobartenesis, pyroplasmosis and others, parasites “quart” directly inside the red blood cells. There they grow and develop, and this process leads to the destruction of blood cells. So in all cases when your pet, after walking in the "field" conditions, began to behave somehow strangely or moping, he lost his appetite or you notice other disturbing signs, it is better not to wait, but to immediately show the cat to the veterinarian.

Another reason, relevant exclusively in late spring and summer, are venomous snake bites. It so happened that on the territory of our country only those species of these reptiles live, the poison of which has only a hemolytic effect. So with any suspicion of their bite, you must immediately take your pet to the veterinarian, because otherwise the animal will either die or remain permanently disabled.

Another predisposing factor is the effect of various chemical compounds. It so happened that in any modern house you can find a lot of "chemicals" used for cleaning and other purposes. In cases when a cat gets to them, trouble can not be avoided. Particularly dangerous means used in automotive engineering. The benzene contained in some of them, specifically for cats, is poison, and it’s deadly. It just causes rapid hemolysis of blood and, if nothing is done, in the case of such poisoning, cats die with a probability of almost 100%.

Finally, there is a certain probability of hemolysis under the influence of some medications. True, this happens only in cases of "self-medication", when the drugs are prescribed and used by the owners themselves, who do not have any veterinary or medical education. You should not save on the services of a veterinarian - perhaps you will not only not help your pet, but just kill him (for example, aspirin, which is often tried by beginner breeders).

Clinical picture

So, how can you understand that the cat urgently needs a veterinarian? Any problems with red blood cell count are expressed in fast fatigue of the animal, the appearance of shortness of breath even after the most minimal physical exertion. The cat seeks to go to the farthest corner and lies there for a long time. At first, all visible mucous membranes fade and acquire a clearly visible cyanosis. This, oddly enough, is a good sign, because in the future, the mucous membranes begin to turn yellow. This already indicates a catastrophically strong decay of red blood cells and the accumulation of a large amount of free bilirubin in the blood.

Since the pet in this state is expected to eat nothing, depletion quickly develops, the condition of the skin and coat is noticeably worsening. The skin becomes dry, elasticity disappears. The coat with advanced forms of the disease is dry, stiff, it feels like a cheap shoe brush. In addition, her hairs become brittle. With the development of jaundice and related pathologies, seizures, vomiting, uncontrollable diarrhea, etc. may occur.

Therapeutic Techniques

Treatment, therefore, depends on the initial causes leading to the development of hemolysis. In case of poisoning, intravenous formulations are administered that relieve intoxication, in severe cases it is strongly blood transfusion recommended. If infectious diseases are suspected, broad-spectrum antibiotics and other antimicrobials are prescribed. For the entire treatment period, hepatoprotectors (drugs that protect the liver), as well as drugs that support cardiovascular activity are also prescribed. In case of "problems" with breathing, the animal is placed in an oxygen chamber.

If the hemolysis process has gone far, then a full-fledged treatment is most likely possible only in a well-equipped veterinary clinic. You cannot do anything at home.

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